Iron II period (950-600bce)


Leather scrolls containing translations (into Aramaic and Greek) of Old Babylonian texts.

Huge and elaborate palaces and public buildings in Assyria.

Egypt hieroglyphs developed into "demotic script".

First written laws in Greece. Graffiti by Greek troops in Nubia suggests high general level of basic education.


Hesiod writes a sort of Greek theology.

Marduk temple in Babylon.

Acropolis begun in Athens


Assyrians develop pontoons so army can cross rivers.

Wheels with spokes.

City water systems developed.